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Friday, 24 October 2014

Cumbria Avifaunas - A History

When the first avifaunas were produced the county boundaries were very different from today. Cumbria now has a large chunk of what was North Lancashire and a little of the old Yorkshire and Northumberland. Hence, in particular Lancashire's avifaunas and reports prior to 1974 contain much Cumbria material. Also some of the early Cumbrian efforts tended to confine themselves to the individual old counties of Cumberland or Westmorland or the "Lake District".

The first attempt at a county list was by J. Heysham within W. Hutchinson's "History of the County of Cumberland” in 1794 but the first systematic list was H.A. Macpherson and W. Duckworth’s "The birds of Cumberland" published in 1886 (with some notes on the birds of Westmorland). This was quickly followed by H.A. Macpherson’s "Vertebrate Fauna of Lakeland" in 1892. This included a major treatment of birds within a much wider review of the wildlife of an area roughly corresponding to the Cumbria of today.

The next County lists appeared as either part or all of volumes of the Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society as follows:

Dunlop, W.E.B.

1923

Lakeland ornithology, 1892 – 1913

Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.3

Hope, L.E.

1923

Appendix to Lakeland Ornithology 1913-1923

Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.3

Blezard, E.

1943

Accounts of the birds of Lakeland

Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.6 - The Birds of Lakeland

Blezard, E.

1946

The birds of Lakeland: a supplement

Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.7 - Lakeland Natural History

Blezard, E.

1954

The birds of Lakeland: a second supplement

Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.8 - Lakeland Ornithology

Blezard, E.

1958

The birds of Lakeland: a third supplement

Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.9 - Lakeland Birds

Stokoe, R.

1962

The Birds of the Lake Counties

Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.10 - The Birds of the Lake Counties

None of these volumes were annual reports. They were reviews of species records and status in the intervening years since the publication of each previous volume.

In 1949 The Penrith and District Natural History Society began circulating its members with a monthly update of wildlife sightings including birds. Other Societies soon joined and the simple typed paper document became "The Field Naturalist" in 1954 becoming bimonthly and a proper bound pamphlet in 1956. It continued until 1968 by which time the number of contributors had dwindled. During its existence three periodic reviews were published called "the Changing Scene" and these included a paper entitled “Some changes in the status of the birds of Lakeland and an account of irregular movements” by Bill Robson in volume 1 issued in 1957.

"The first recognisable bird reports appeared for the years 1970 – 1972 and for 1973. These reports contained systematic lists from different Natural History Societies and were part of a publication called "Natural History in Cumbria" published on behalf of the newly formed "Association of Natural History Societies". The first annual countywide bird report appeared for 1974 with the title of the volume changing from “Natural History in Cumbria” to “Birds In Cumbria” in 1976. The ANHS became the Cumbria Naturalists Union in 1980 and the title changed to "Birds and Wildlife in Cumbria" in 1995.

Irregular recent reports were published by the Barrow Naturalists Field Club in their sporadic reports from 1900 to 1963 for the Furness area and also by the West Cumberland Field Society in their transactions which appear to have appeared only twice in 1971 and 1972. Since the formation of the Cumbria Bird Club "Recent reports have appeared on a quarterly basis in the Club's newsletter since 1990.

An independent review "Lakeland Birdlife” 1920 - 1970 was written by Rob Brown and published in 1974. In 1986 a further privately published review "Cumbrian Birds 1964 - 1984" was written by Malcolm Hutcheson

Of the Lancashire publication, Mitchel’s “Birds of Lancashire” in 1885 was followed in 1953 by Clifford Oakes’ volume of the same title. This second volume in particular, contains much information for that part of Lancashire “North of the Sands” as does an update “The status and distribution of the birds of Lancashire” written by K.G. Spencer in 1973 . This is also true of the annual Lancashire bird reports which began as far back as 1914 to county re-organisation in 1974. In addition the Lancaster and District Birdwatching Society have produced annual reports since 1959 with periodic reviews in 1968 and 1978 covering an area including the southeast part of Cumbria.

 

Secondhand copies of the first "Macpherson and Duckworth” seem to sell at around £80 and Macpherson’s "Vertebrate Fauna" at about £150. However a facsimile copy of the latter was produced in 1972 and goes for anything between £10 and £30.

Secondhand copies of Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society go for between £5 and £15.
(one is available from Tullie House Museum – see below).

Secondhand copies of the “Changing Scene” sell at between £5 and £15.

Stocks of the following may be obtained from Stephen Hewitt at Tullie House Museum, Carlisle.

Lakeland Birdlife (Rob Brown) £5.00

Transactions of the Carlisle Natural History Society vol 8 Lakeland Ornithology £5.00

Past issues of annual Cumbria Bird reports are available from Cumbria Bird Club - more details.

 

For past Lancaster reports, contact Lancaster and District Birdwatching Society.

 

For past Lancashire reports, contact Lancashire and Cheshire Fauna Society.

Local Reports.

Over the years many "patch" reports have been produced. Some published and some not.

Most take the form of a review of a particular geographical area in a defined time period but some are annual. The majority of the latter are for nature reserves and are to be found in their overall annual reports. Some private individuals have also produced systematic lists and continue to do so. The Bird Club would be pleased to hear of these if they are not already forwarded as part of the annual reporting process.

A list of known patch reports follows.

Author

Date

Title

Source

Heysham, J.

1794

A catalogue of Cumberland animals

The History of the county of Cumberland by W. Hutchinson 2nd section, 4-23, 38, 96, 449-453

Richardson, W.M.

1794

Zoology of the Ullswater District

The History of the county of Cumberland by W. Hutchinson 2nd section

Clarke, J.

1807

A survey of the lakes of Cumberland, Westmorland and Lancashire

 

Rylands, P.

1837

Catalogue of birds found in Lancashire

 

Pearson, W.

1850

Notices on a few subjects in the natural history of Crossthwaite and Lythe

 

Armstrong, T.

1854

Notes on the natural history of East Cumberland

Naturalist (Morris's): 225-226, 250-253

Birbeck, R

1854

A list of the birds of West Cumberland - a reply

Zoologist 1854:4366

Robson, J.

1854

A list of the birds of West Cumberland

Zoologist 1854:4166-4170, 4406

Gough, T.

1861

Birds of Kendal

The Annals of Kendal by C. Nicholson 307-310

Harting, J.E.

1864

The Birds of Walney Island

Zoologist 1864: 9156-65

Smith, H.E

1864

Other notes on the birds which breed upon Walney and adjacent islands

Zoologist 1864: 9321-9325

Cordeaux, J.

1867

Notes on the ornithology of the Englisjh Lakes (1867)

Zoologist 1867: 865-871

Durnford, H.

1873

A few notes on the birds that breed on Walney Islands

Zoologist 1873: 3603-3606

Durnford, W.A.

1878

Ornithological notes from the Lake District

Zoologist 1878: 118-121

Dawson, G. & Ward, J.C.

1879

List of Cumberland birds in the Carlisle and Keswick museums

Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association 4: 331-339

Macpherson, H.A.

1884

Ornitholgical notes from Carlisle 1883

Zoologist Apr. 1884: 127-130

Parker, C.A.

1884

A Cumberland Marsh (Drigg)

Field 3/5/1884: 596-597

Smith, C.F.

1884

A Cumberland Marsh (Drigg)

Field 19/4/1884: 560

Armistead, J.J.

1885

Notes on some of the birds occurring in the Solway District

Naturalist 1885: 293-298

Backhouse, J.

1885

Notes on the Avi-fauna of upper Teesdale

Naturalist 1885: 353-364

Peile, W.

1885

Cockermouth Bird Notes (Dippers, Tits, Owls, Crow, Chats,

Natural History Journal 15/5/1885: 79

Armistead, J.J.

1886

Notes on some of the birds occurring in the Solway District

Naturalist 1886: 69-78

Macpherson, H.A.

1886

Solway bird notes

Naturalist 1886: 150

Postlethwaite, T.N.

1886

Ornithological notes from south Cumberland (Millom)

Zoologist July 1886: 300-301

Macpherson, H.A.

1887

Zoological record for Cumberland - birds 1886

Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association 12: 29-43

Backhouse, J.

1888

Notes and additions to the avi-fauna of upper Teesdale

Naturalist 1888: 79-80

Macpherson, H.A.

1888

Ornithological record for Cumberland, January 1887-June 1888

Transactions of the Cumberland and Westmorland Association 13: 25-29

Macpherson, H.A.

1888

Notes on the birds of Cumberland

Zoologist 1888: 328-331

Macpherson, H.A.

1888

Response to "The ornithology of Skiddaw, Scafell and Helvellyn"

Naturalist 1888: 242

Watson, J.

1888

A list of the birds of the Lake District

Westmorland Natural History Record 6: 45-48, 88-90,

Watson, J.

1888

Notes on the birds of the Lake District

Naturalist 1888: 201-202

Watson, J.

1888

The ornithology of Skiddaw, Scafell and Helvellyn

Naturalist 1888: 161-168

Macpherson, H.A.

1889

Ornitholgical notes from Cumberland and Wetmorlannd

Zoologist May 1889: 175-177

Macpherson, H.A.

1890

Notes on birds from Lancashire

Naturalist 1890: 234-236

Barber, S.

1892

Beneath Helvellyns Shade, Notes and sketches in the valley of Wythburn

 

Macpherson, H.A.

1892

Birds

A Vertebrate Fauna of Lakeland: 87-460

Anon

1900

List of the Birds of the Furness district

Barrow Naturalists Field Club Annual Report V14: 4-6

Macpherson, H.A.

1901

Solway bird notes

Naturalist 1901: 150

Armitt, M.L.

1902

The birds of Rydal

Naturalist 1902: 237-257

Armitt, M.L.

1902

Natural History and sport in the Lake Counties - the Birds

The Lake Counties by W.G. Collingwood

Booth, H.B.

1907

The birds etc. of Walney Island

Naturalist 1907: 270-273

Haigh-Lumby, A.

1911

The birds of Walney Island

Naturalist 1911: 281-282

Graham, R.

1928

Notes on the birds of Lakeland and the Solway Firth 1926

North West Naturalist 3: 127-131, 166-170

Graham, R.

1929

Notes on the birds of Lakeland and the Solway Firth 1927

North West Naturalist 4: 109-120

Graham, R.

1930

Bird notes from the Solway Firth 1928

North West Naturalist 5 : 167-177, 231-235

Graham, R.

1931

Bird notes from the Solway Firth and Lakeland 1929

North West Naturalist 6: 207-221

Armitt, M.L. & Astley, A.

1932

Natural History and sport in the Lake Counties - the Birds revised

The Lake Counties 2nd edition by W.G. Collingwood: 185-199

Graham, R.

1932

Bird notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1930

North West Naturalist 7: 102-114, 196-208

Wilson, J.O.

1933

Birds of Westmorland and the North Pennines

 

Graham, R.

1934

Bird notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1932

North West Naturalist 9: 36-42, 135-149

Graham, R.

1934

Bird notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1933

North West Naturalist 9: 233-246, 344-356

Graham, R.

1935

Ornitholgical notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1934

North West Naturalist 10: 120-130, 201-212

Graham, R.

1936

Ornitholgical notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1935

North West Naturalist 11: 133, 247, 349

Graham, R.

1937

Ornitholgical notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1936

North West Naturalist 12: 251-259

Anon

1939

Ornithological report 1936-37

Barrow Naturalists Field Club Annual Report V4: 22

Anon

1939

Ornithological report 1937-38

Barrow Naturalists Field Club Annual Report V4: 29

Anon

1939

Ornithological report 1938-39

Barrow Naturalists Field Club Annual Report V4: 40

Graham, R.

1939

Ornitholgical notes from the Solway Firth, Pennines and Lakeland 1938

North West Naturalist 14: 118-124

Marriner, T.F.

1940

Birds, mammals and fishes of NE Cumberland

Naturalist 1940: 177-184

Brown, R.H.

1943

Notes from Cumberland

British Birds 37: 35

Garnett, R.M.

1946

Winter birds on Windermere - a retrospect

Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.7 - Lakeland Natural History: 49-70

Anon

1951

Bird records at Cavendish Dock

Barrow Naturalists Field Club Annual Report V7: 26

Stokoe, R.

1954

Siddick Pond and its birds

Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol.8 - Lakeland Ornithology:33-74

Coward, T.A.

1956

The English Lake District: Notes on a few of the birds breeding there in 1884-85

Bird Notes 27: 145-148

Allen, J.W.

1960

Ornithological notes 1956-1960

Trans. Eden Field Club, Penrith NHS, Kendal NHS, The Changing Scene Vol. 2

Robson, R.W.

1960

The birds of Sunbiggin Tarn

Trans. Eden Field Club, Penrith NHS, Kendal NHS, The Changing Scene Vol. 2

Stokoe, R.

1960

Birds on the west Cumberland coast

Trans. Eden Field Club, Penrith NHS, Kendal NHS. The Changing Scene Vol. 2

Anon

1962

Bird migration at Grune Point

Trans. Carlisle NHS Vol 10 - The Birds of the Lake Counties: 113-128

Stokoe, R.

1966

Birds from Grune Point

Trans. Eden Field Club, Penrith NHS, Kendal NHS. The Changing Scene Vol. 3

Mitchell, W.R. & Robson, R.W.

1973

Pennine Birds

 

Colley, L.T.

1974

Rockliffe Marsh general records 1970-73

Natural History in Cumbria 1973

Mitchell, W.R. & Robson, R.W.

1974

Lakeland Birds

 

Wilson, J.

1974

The Birds of Morecambe Bay

 

Callion, J.

1977

Observations on Siddick Pond

Birds in Cumbria 1976

Parkin, J.

1977

Birds of the Moorhouse National Nature Reserve

Aspects of the Ecology of the North Pennines, Occ.paper 10

Gould, A.F.

1978

A square of birds: A survey of birds in the Kendal district

Birds in Cumbria 1977

Bayliss, R.

1984

Birds in the Duddon Estuary

The Duddon Estuary : a partnership for progress 51-58

Carrier, M.

1984

Birds of South Solway

Birds in Cumbria 1983

Burnham, P.M.

1986

The breeding birds of a stretch of the River Tees within Moor House National Nature Reserve, Cumbria 1979-1983

Naturalist 1986: 79-86

Dean, T.

1991

Systematic list of the birds of Walney Island

The Natural History of Walney Island: 78-189

Bottomley, R.

1994

Sunbiggin Tarn

Cumbria Bird Club News 5: no 4

Gould, A.F.

1994

Killington Reservoir and its birds (also Bannisdale)

Cumbria Bird Club News 5: no 1

Smith, J.

1995

Siddick Pond local nature reserve

Cumbria Bird Club News 6: no 1

Naylor, G.

1997

Talkin Tarn notes, autumn 1997

Cumbria Bird Club News 8: no 4

Cleasby, T.W.I.

1999

Birds and Boys at Sedbergh

 

Stirrup, S.

1999

Changes in the status of birds in the Great Langdale Valley

Cumbria Bird Club News 10: no 2

Senior, A. & Robinson, T.

2000

Birds of Burneside

A Natural History Survey of the Burneside parishes of Strickland Roger and Strickland Ketel 38-42

Clarke, G.

2001

Bird counts along the river Kent in 2000

Wildlife of Kendal: A natural history of Kendal in the year 2000: 18-19

Gould, A.F.

2001

Birds breeding in Kendal

Wildlife of Kendal: A natural history of Kendal in the year 2000: 4-10

Gould, A.F.

2001

Non breeding birds in Kendal

Wildlife of Kendal: A natural history of Kendal in the year 2000; 11-17

Naylor, G.

2001

Recent bird records (north Cumbria)

The Carlisle Naturalist 9: no.1

Tulloch, M.

2001

Kershope Forest Mosaic

Cumbria Bird Club News 12: no 1

CWT

?

Foulney annual bird report

Foulney CWT Annual Report

CWT

?

North Walney annual bird report

North Walney CWT Annual Report

CWT

?

Rockliffe Marsh annual bird and ringing report

Rockliffe Marsh CWT Annual Report

EN

1951on

Moorhouse National Nature Reserve annual bird report

Moorhouse National Nature Reserve Annual report

CCC

1964on

Ravenglass annual bird report

Ravenglass Local Nature Reserve Annual Report

Walney B.O.

1964on

Walney Bird Observatory annual bird and ringing report

Walney Bird Observatory Annual Reports

RSPB

1975on

Geltsdale annual bird report

Geltsdale RSPB Reserve Annual Reports

RSPB

1975on

St Bees Head annual bird report

St Bees Head RSPB Reserve Annual Reports

NT

1984on

Sandscale Haws annual bird report

Sandscale Haws NT Reserve Report

RSPB

1986on

Hodbarrow annual bird report

Hodbarrow RSPB Reserve Annual Reports

RSPB

1988on

Haweswater annual bird report

Haweswater RSPB Reserve Annual Reports

RSPB

1989on

Campfield Marsh annual bird report

Campfield Marsh RSPB Reserve Annual Reports

LDNPA

1995on

Bassenthwaite National Nature Reserve annual bird and ringing report

Bassenthwaite National Nature Reserve Annual Reports