Cumbria Bird List

The following list is also available as a Cumbria Bird List spreadsheet.

See below for the recording and breeding category definitions.

Brent Goose Branta bernicla
 ‒ ‒ nigricans R Rare winter visitor
 ‒ ‒ bernicla F Fairly common winter visitor and passage migrant
 ‒ ‒ hrota F Fairly common winter visitor and passage migrant
Red-breasted Goose Branta ruficollis V Vagrant
Canada Goose Branta canadensis
 ‒ ‒ interior/parvipes R Rare winter visitor
 ‒ ‒ canadensis C Common resident and summer visitor primarily to moult. Breeds in small numbers
Barnacle Goose Branta leucopsis A Abundant winter visitor
Cackling Goose Branta hutchinsii V Vagrant
Greylag Goose Anser anser C Common resident, winter visitor and summer visitor primarily to moult. Breeds in moderate numbers
Taiga Bean Goose Anser fabilis V Vagrant
Pink-footed Goose Anser brachyrhynchus A Abundant winter visitor and passage migrant
Tundra Bean Goose Anser serrirostris R Rare winter visitor and passage migrant
White-fronted Goose Anser albifrons U Uncommon winter visitor and passage migrant
       ‒ ‒ flavirostris
 ‒ ‒ albifrons
Lesser White-fronted Goose Anser erythropus V Vagrant
Mute Swan Cygnus olor F Fairly common resident. Breeds in small numbers
Bewick’s Swan Cygnus columbianus R Rare winter visitor and passage migrant
Whooper Swan Cygnus cygnus F Fairly common winter visitor and passage migrant
Shelduck Tadorna tadorna C Common resident, abundant summer visitor and winter visitor. Breeds in moderate numbers
Mandarin Duck Aix galericulata U Uncommon introduced resident and escape. Breeds in very small numbers
Garganey Spatula querquedula U Uncommon passage migrant
Blue-winged Teal Spatula discors V Vagrant
Shoveler Spatula clypeata U Uncommon resident and fairly common winter visitor. Breeds in very small numbers
Gadwall Mareca strepera F Fairly common resident passage migrant and winter visitor. Breeds in very small numbers
Wigeon Mareca penelope U Uncommon resident, abundant winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very small numbers
American Wigeon Mareca americana R Rare visitor
Mallard Anas platyrhynchos A Abundant resident and winter visitor, some introduced. Breeds in large numbers
Pintail Anas acuta C Common winter visitor and passage migrant. Occasional breeder
Teal Anas crecca C Fairly common resident, common passage migrant and winter visitor. Breeds in small numbers
Green-winged Teal Anas carolinensis V Vagrant
Pochard Aythya ferina U Uncommon resident, common passage migrant and winter visitor. Breeds in very small numbers
Ferruginous Duck Aythya nyroca V Vagrant
Ring-necked Duck Aythya collaris V Vagrant
Tufted Duck Aythya fuligula C Common resident and winter visitor. Breeds in moderate numbers
Scaup Aythya marila F Fairly common winter visitor and occasional in summer
Lesser Scaup Aythya affinis V Vagrant
King Eider Somateria spectabilis V Vagrant
Eider Somateria mollissima C Common resident. Breeds in moderate numbers
Surf Scoter Melanitta perspicillata V Vagrant
Velvet Scoter Melanitta fusca S Scarce winter visitor and passage migrant
Common Scoter Melanitta nigra U Uncommon winter visitor and passage migrant
Long-tailed Duck Clangula hyemalis U Uncommon winter visitor
Goldeneye Bucephala clangula C Common winter visitor and passage migrant, occasional in summer
Smew Mergellus albellus S Scarce winter visitor
Goosander Mergus merganser C Common resident and winter visitor. Breeds in moderate numbers
Red-breasted Merganser Mergus serrator F Fairly common resident and common winter visitor. Breeds in small numbers
Ruddy Duck Oxyura jamaicensis R Rare resident. Former breeder
Red Grouse Lagopus lagopus C Common resident. Breeds in large numbers
Black Grouse Lyrurus tetrix F Fairly common resident. Breeds in small numbers
Grey Partridge Perdix perdix F Fairly common resident, some introduced. Breeds in moderate numbers
Pheasant Phasianus colchicus A Abundant resident, large numbers introduced. Breeds in large numbers
Quail Coturnix coturnix U Uncommon summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds occasionally
Red-legged Partridge Alectoris rufa C Common resident, many introduced. Breeds in small numbers
Nightjar Caprimulgus europaeus U Uncommon summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very small numbers
Alpine Swift Tachymarptis melba V Vagrant
Swift Apus apus C Common summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in moderate numbers
Great Bustard Otis tarda V Vagrant
Cuckoo Cuculus canorus C Common summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in moderate numbers
Pallas’s Sandgrouse Syrrhaptes paradoxus V Vagrant
Rock Dove & Feral Pigeon Columba livia C Common resident, some introduced. Breeds in large numbers
Stock Dove Columba oenas C Common resident and winter visitor. Breeds in large numbers
Woodpigeon Columba palumbus A Abundant resident and winter visitor. Breeds in very large numbers
Turtle Dove Streptopelia turtur R Rare passage migrant
Collared Dove Streptopelia decaocto A Abundant resident. Breeds in large numbers
Water Rail Rallus aquaticus U Uncommon residentand winter visitor. Breeds in small numbers
Corncrake Crex crex R Rare passage migrant. Former breeder
Spotted Crake Porzana porzana V Vagrant
Moorhen Gallinula chloropus A Abundant resident. Breeds in large numbers
Coot Fulica atra C Common resident and winter visitor. Breeds in moderate numbers
American Coot Fulica americana V Vagrant
Baillon’s Crake Zapornia pusilla V Vagrant
Little Crake Zapornia parva V Vagrant
Crane Grus grus R Rare  
Little Grebe Tachybaptus ruficollis F Fairly common resident and winter visitor. Breeds in small numbers
Pied-billed Grebe Podilymbus podiceps V Vagrant
Red-necked Grebe Podiceps grisegena S Scarce winter visitor
Great Crested Grebe Podiceps cristatus F Fairly common resident and winter visitor. Breeds in small numbers
Slavonian Grebe Podiceps auritus S Scarce winter visitor
Black-necked Grebe Podiceps nigricollis R Rare winter visitor
Stone-curlew Burhinus oedicnemus V Vagrant
Oystercatcher Haematopus ostralegus A Abundant resident, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Black-winged Stilt Himantopus Himantopus V Vagrant
Avocet Recurvirostra avosetta U Uncommon summer visitor. Breeds in very small numbers
Lapwing Vanellus Vanellus A Abundant resident, summer visitor, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in moderate numbers
Golden Plover Pluvialis apricaria F/A Fairly common resident and abundant winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in moderate numbers
Pacific Golden Plover Pluvialis fulva V Vagrant
American Golden Plover Pluvialis dominica V Vagrant
Grey Plover Pluvialis squatarola F Fairly common winter visitor and passage migrant
Ringed Plover Charadrius hiaticula F Fairly common resident, common winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in small numbers
 ‒ ‒ psammodromus Passage migrant
 ‒ ‒ hiaticula
Little Ringed Plover Charadrius dubius U Uncommon summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very small numbers
Kentish Plover Charadrius alexandrines V Vagrant
Greater Sand Plover Charadrius leschenaultia V Vagrant
Dotterel Charadrius morinellus U Uncommon passage migrant and rare summer visitor. Breeds occasionally
Whimbrel Numenius phaeopus F Fairly common passage migrant
Hudsonian Whimbrel Numenius hudsonicus V Vagrant
Curlew Numenius arquata C/A Common resident, summer visitor and abundant winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in small numbers
Bar-tailed Godwit Limosa lapponica F Fairly common winter visitor and passage migrant
Black-tailed Godwit Limosa limosa F Fairly common passage migrant and uncommon winter visitor. Former breeder
 ‒ ‒ islandica Passage migrant
 ‒ ‒ limosa
Turnstone Arenaria interpres C Common winter visitor and passage migrant, fairly common in summer
Knot Calidris canutus A Abundant winter visitor and passage migrant, uncommon in summer
Ruff Calidris pugnax U/S Uncommon passage migrant and scarce winter visitor
Broad-billed Sandpiper Calidris falcinellus V Vagrant
Stilt Sandpiper Calidris Himantopus V Vagrant
Curlew Sandpiper Calidris ferruginea U Uncommon passage migrant
Temminck’s Stint Calidris temminckii V Vagrant
Sanderling Calidris alba C Common winter visitor and passage migrant
Dunlin Calidris alpina U/A Uncommon resident and abundant winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very small numbers
 ‒ ‒ schinzii
 ‒ ‒ alpina
 ‒ ‒ artica
Purple Sandpiper Calidris maritima F Fairly common winter visitor
Baird’s Sandpiper Calidris bairdii V Vagrant
Little Stint Calidris minuta U Uncommon passage migrant and scarce winter visitor
White-rumped Sandpiper Calidris fuscicollis V Vagrant
Buff-breasted Sandpiper Calidris subruficollis R Rare visitor
Pectoral Sandpiper Calidris melanotos S Scarce passage migrant
Semipalmated Sandpiper Calidris pusilla V Vagrant
Long-billed Dowitcher Limnodromus scolopaceus R Rare visitor
Woodcock Scolopax rusticola C Common resident, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in moderate numbers
Jack Snipe Lymnocryptes minimus U Uncommon winter visitor and passage migrant
Great Snipe Gallinago media V Vagrant
Snipe Gallinago gallinago C/A Common resident and abundant winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Terek Sandpiper Xenus cinereus V Vagrant
Wilson’s Phalarope Phalaropus tricolor V Vagrant
Red-necked Phalarope Phalaropus lobatus R Rare passage migrant
Grey Phalarope Phalaropus fulicarius R Rare passage migrant
Common Sandpiper Actitis hypoleucos C Common summer visitor and passage migrant, scarce in winter. Breeds in moderate numbers
Spotted Sandpiper Actitis macularius V Vagrant
Green Sandpiper Tringa ochropus U Uncommon passage migrant and winter visitor
Lesser Yellowlegs Tringa flavipes V Vagrant
Redshank Tringa totanus F/A Fairly common resident, summer visitor and abundant winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in moderate numbers
 ‒ ‒ totanus
 ‒ ‒ robusta
Wood Sandpiper Tringa glareola S Scarce passage migrant
Spotted Redshank Tringa erythropus U Uncommon passage migrant, scarce in winter
Greenshank Tringa nebularia F Fairly common passage migrant and uncommon winter visitor
Greater Yellowlegs Tringa melanoleuca V Vagrant
Cream-coloured Courser Cursorius cursor V Vagrant
Black-winged Pratincole Glareola nordmanni V Vagrant
Kittiwake Rissa tridactyla C Common summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in moderate numbers
Ivory Gull Pagophila eburnean V Vagrant
Sabine’s Gull Xema sabini R Rare passage migrant
Black-headed Gull Chroicocephalus ridibundus A Abundant resident, summer visitor, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Little Gull Hydrocoloeus minutus U Uncommon winter visitor passage migrant
Ross’s Gull Rhodostethia rosea V Vagrant
Laughing Gull Leucophaeus atricilla V Vagrant
Mediterranean Gull Ichthyaetus melanocephalus F Fairly common passage migrant and winter visitor. Breeds occasionally
Common Gull Larus canus A Abundant winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very small numbers
Ring-billed Gull Larus delawarensis V Vagrant
Great Black-backed Gull Larus marinus F Fairly common resident, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in small numbers
Glaucous Gull Larus hyperboreus S Scarce winter visitor
Iceland Gull Larus glaucoides S Scarce winter visitor and passage migrant
Herring Gull Larus argentatus A Abundant resident, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in moderate numbers
 ‒ ‒ argenteus
 ‒ ‒ argentatus
Caspian Gull Larus cachinnans V Vagrant
Yellow-legged Gull Larus michahellis R Rare passage migrant and winter visitor
Lesser Black-backed Gull Larus fuscus A Abundant summer visitor and passage migrant and overwintering bird. Breeds in large numbers
 ‒ ‒ graellsii
 ‒ ‒ intermedius Passage migrant
Caspian Tern Hydroprogne caspia V Vagrant
Sandwich Tern Thalasseus sandvicensis C Common summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in moderate numbers
Little Tern Sternula albifrons F Fairly common summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in small numbers
Bridled Tern Onychoprion anaethetus V Vagrant
Sooty Tern Onychoprion fuscatus V Vagrant
Roseate Tern Sterna dougallii R Rare passage migrant. Former breeder
Common Tern Sterna hirundo F Fairly common summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in small numbers
Arctic Tern Sterna paradisaea F Fairly common summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in small numbers
Whiskered Tern Chlidonias hybrida V Vagrant
White-winged Black Tern Chlidonias leucopterus V Vagrant
Black Tern Chlidonias niger S Scarce passage migrant
Great Skua Stercorarius skua U Uncommon passage migrant, scarce in winter
Pomarine Skua Stercorarius pomarinus F Fairly common passage migrant, rare in winter
Arctic Skua Stercorarius parasiticus F Fairly common passage migrant, scarce in winter
Long-tailed Skua Stercorarius longicaudus U Uncommon passage migrant
Little Auk Alle alle R Rare winter visitor
Common Guillemot Uria aalge A Abundant summer visitor and fairly common passage migrant and winter visitor. Breeds in large numbers
      ‒ ‒ aalge
 ‒ ‒ albionis
Razorbill Alca torda F Fairly common summer visitor, common passage migrant and uncommon winter visitor
Black Guillemot Cepphus grylle U Uncommon summer visitor and passage migrant, scarce in winter. Breeds in very small numbers
Puffin Fratercula arctica U Uncommon summer visitor and passage migrant, scarce in winter. Breeds in very small numbers
Red-throated Diver Gavia stellata F Fairly common winter visitor and passage migrant
Black-throated Diver Gavia arctica S Scarce winter visitor and passage migrant
Great Northern Diver Gavia immer U Uncommon winter visitor and passage migrant
White-billed Diver Gavia adamsii V Vagrant
Wilson’s Petrel Oceanites oceanicus V Vagrant
Storm Petrel Hydrobates pelagicus U Uncommon summer visitor and passage migrant
Leach’s Petrel Oceanodroma leucorhoa S Scarce passage migrant
Fulmar Fulmarus glacialis F Fairly common summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in small numbers
Cory’s Shearwater Calonectris borealis V Vagrant
Sooty Shearwater Ardenna grisea V Vagrant
Great Shearwater Ardenna gravis V Vagrant
Manx Shearwater Puffinus puffinus F Fairly common passage migrant
Balearic Shearwater Puffinus mauretanicus V Vagrant
Black Stork Ciconia nigra V Vagrant
White Stork Ciconia Ciconia R Rare visitor
Gannet Morus bassanus C Common summer visitor and passage migrant
Cormorant Phalacrocorax carbo C Common resident, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in small numbers
 ‒ ‒ carbo
 ‒ ‒ sinensis
Shag Phalacrocorax aristotelis U Uncommon winter visitor and passage migrant
Glossy Ibis Plegadis falcinellus R Rare visitor
Spoonbill Platalea leucorodia S Scarce passage migrant
Bittern Botaurus stellaris S Scarce passage migrant and winter visitor
Little Bittern Ixobrychus minutus V Vagrant
Night-heron Nycticorax Nycticorax V Vagrant
Squacco Heron Ardeola ralloides V Vagrant
Cattle Egret Bubulcus ibis R Rare visitor
Grey Heron Ardea cinerea F Fairly common resident. Breeds in small numbers
Purple Heron Ardea purpurea V Vagrant
Great White Egret Ardea alba U Uncommon passage migrant and winter visitor
Little Egret Egretta garzetta F Fairly common resident, passage migrant and winter visitor. Breeds in small numbers
Osprey Pandion haliaetus U Uncommon summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very small numbers
Honey-buzzard Pernis apivorus S Scarce summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very small numbers
Golden Eagle Aquila chrysaetos R Rare visitor. Former breeder
Sparrowhawk Accipiter nisus C Common resident. Breeds in moderate numbers
Goshawk Accipiter gentilis U Uncommon resident. Breeds in very small numbers
Marsh Harrier Circus aeruginosus U Uncommon passage migrant. Former breeder, bred in 2017
Hen Harrier Circus cyaneus U Uncommon resident, winter visitor. Breeds in very small numbers
Pallid Harrier Circus macrourus V Vagrant
Montagu’s Harrier Circus pygargus V Vagrant
Red Kite Milvus milvus U Uncommon resident, re-introduced. Breeds in very small numbers
Black Kite Milvus migrans V Vagrant
White-tailed Eagle Haliaeetus albicilla V Vagrant
Rough-legged Buzzard Buteo lagopus R Rare winter passage migrant
Buzzard Buteo buteo C Common resident. Breeds in large numbers
Barn Owl Tyto alba F Fairly common resident. Breeds in small numbers
Tengmalm’s Owl Aegolius funereus V Vagrant
Little Owl Athene noctua U Uncommon resident. Breeds in small numbers
Scops Owl Otus scops V Vagrant
Long-eared Owl Asio otus U Uncommon resident, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very small numbers
Short-eared Owl Asio flammeus U Uncommon resident, fairly common winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in small numbers
Snowy Owl Bubo scandiacus V Vagrant
Tawny Owl Strix aluco C Common resident. Breeds in large numbers
Hoopoe Upupa epops R Rare visitor
Roller Coracias garrulus V Vagrant
Kingfisher Alcedo atthis U Uncommon resident. Breeds in small numbers
Bee-eater Merops apiaster R Rare passage migrant. Bred in 2015
Wryneck Jynx torquilla R Rare visitor
Lesser Spotted Woodpecker Dryobates minor R Rare visitor. Former breeder
Great Spotted Woodpecker Dendrocopos major C Common resident. Breeds in large numbers
Green Woodpecker Picus viridis F Fairly common resident. Breeds in moderate numbers
Kestrel Falco tinnunculus C Common resident and winter visitor. Breeds in moderate numbers
Red-footed Falcon Falco vespertinus V Vagrant
Merlin Falco columbarius U Uncommon resident, passage migrant and winter visitor. Breeds in small numbers
Hobby Falco subbuteo U Uncommon summer visitor and passage migrant
Gyr Falcon Falco rusticolus V Vagrant
Peregrine Falco peregrinus F Fairly common resident. Breeds in small numbers
Red-backed Shrike Lanius collurio V Vagrant
Daurian Shrike Lanius isabellinus V Vagrant
Great Grey Shrike Lanius excubitor
 ‒ ‒ excubitor S Scarce winter visitor
 ‒ ‒ pallidirostris V Vagrant
Woodchat Shrike Lanius senator V Vagrant
Red-eyed Vireo Vireo olivaceus V Vagrant
Golden Oriole Oriolus oriolus R Rare passage migrant
Jay Garrulus glandarius C Common resident. Breeds in moderate numbers
Magpie Pica pica A Abundant resident. Breeds in large numbers
Nutcracker Nucifraga caryocatactes V Vagrant
Chough Pyrrhocorax pyrrhocorax R Rare visitor
Jackdaw Coloeus monedula A Abundant resident. Breeds in very large numbers
Rook Corvus frugilegus A Abundant resident. Breeds in very large numbers
Carrion Crow Corvus corone A Abundant resident. Breeds in very large numbers
Hooded Crow Corvus cornix U Uncommon winter visitor and passage migrant
Raven Corvus corax F Fairly common resident. Breeds in small numbers
Waxwing Bombycilla garrulus I Irruptive winter visitor
Coal Tit Periparus ater A Abundant resident. Breeds in large numbers
Marsh Tit Poecile palustris F Fairly common resident. Breeds in moderate numbers
Willow Tit Poecile montanus U Uncommon resident. Breeds in very small numbers
Blue Tit Cyanistes caeruleus A Abundant resident. Breeds in very large numbers
Great Tit Parus major A Abundant resident. Breeds in very large numbers
Bearded Tit Panurus biarmicus V Vagrant
Woodlark Lullula arborea V Vagrant
Skylark Alauda arvensis A Abundant resident, summer visitor, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Shore Lark Eremophila alpestris V Vagrant
Sand Martin Riparia riparia C Common summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Swallow Hirundo rustica A Abundant summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very large numbers
House Martin Delichon urbicum A Abundant summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very large numbers
Red-rumped Swallow Cecropis daurica V Vagrant
Cetti’s Warbler Cettia cetti R Rare visitor
Long-tailed Tit Aegithalos caudatus A Abundant resident. Breeds in large numbers
 ‒ ‒ rosaceus
 ‒ ‒ caudatus
Wood Warbler Phylloscopus sibilatrix F Fairly common summer visitor. Breeds in moderate numbers
Western Bonelli’s Warbler Phylloscopus bonelli V Vagrant
Hume’s Warbler Phylloscopus humei V Vagrant
Yellow-browed Warbler Phylloscopus inornatus U Uncommon autumn passage migrant, has wintered
Pallas’s Warbler Phylloscopus proregulus V Vagrant
Dusky Warbler Phylloscopus fuscatus V Vagrant
Willow Warbler Phylloscopus trochilus A Abundant summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very large numbers
Chiffchaff Phylloscopus collybita
 ‒ ‒ collybita A Abundant summer visitor and passage migrant, scarce in winter. Breeds in very large numbers
 ‒ ‒ tristis V Vagrant
Greenish Warbler Phylloscopus trochiloides V Vagrant
Sedge Warbler Acrocephalus schoenobaenus C Common summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Paddyfield Warbler Acrocephalus Agricola V Vagrant
Blyth’s Reed Warbler Acrocephalus dumetorum V Vagrant
Reed Warbler Acrocephalus scirpaceus U Uncommon summer visitor. Breeds in small numbers
Marsh Warbler Acrocephalus palustris V Vagrant
Booted Warbler Iduna caligata V Vagrant
Melodious Warbler Hippolais polyglotta V Vagrant
Icterine Warbler Hippolais icterina V Vagrant
Grasshopper Warbler Locustella naevia F Fairly common summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in moderate numbers
Blackcap Sylvia atricapilla A Abundant summer visitor, passage migrant and scarce winter visitor. Breeds in large numbers
Garden Warbler Sylvia borin A Abundant summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Barred Warbler Curruca nisoria V Vagrant
Lesser Whitethroat Curruca curruca F Fairly common summer visitor. Breeds in moderate numbers
Eastern Subalpine Warbler Curruca cantillans V Vagrant
Whitethroat Curruca communis A Abundant summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Dartford Warbler Curruca undata V Vagrant
Firecrest Regulus ignicapilla S Scarce winter visitor and passage migrant
Goldcrest Regulus regulus A Abundant resident and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Wren Troglodytes troglodytes A Abundant resident. Breeds in very large numbers
Nuthatch Sitta europaea C Common resident. Breeds in moderate numbers
Treecreeper Certhia familiaris C Common resident. Breeds in large numbers
Rose-coloured Starling Pastor roseus R Rare passage migrant
Starling Sturnus vulgaris A Abundant resident, summer visitor and winter visitor. Breeds in very large numbers
 ‒ ‒ vulgaris
 ‒ ‒ zetlandicus
Song Thrush Turdus philomelos A Abundant resident, summer visitor, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very large numbers
 ‒ ‒ clarkei
 ‒ ‒ philomelos
Mistle Thrush Turdus viscivorus A Abundant resident, summer visitor, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Redwing Turdus iliacus A Abundant winter visitor and passage migrant
Blackbird Turdus merula A Abundant resident, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very large numbers
Fieldfare Turdus pilaris A Abundant winter visitor and passage migrant
Ring Ouzel Turdus torquatus F Fairly comon summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in moderate mumbers
Spotted Flycatcher Muscicapa striata A Abundant summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Robin Erithacus rubecula A Abundant resident, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very large numbers
Bluethroat Luscinia svecica R Rare passage migrant
Nightingale Luscinia megarhynchos V Vagrant
Red-breasted Flycatcher Ficedula parva V Vagrant
Pied Flycatcher Ficedula hypoleuca C Common summer visitor. Breeds in large numbers
Collared Flycatcher Ficedula albicollis V Vagrant
Black Redstart Phoenicurus ochruros U Uncommon passage migrant and scarce winter visitor
Redstart Phoenicurus Phoenicurus C Common summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Whinchat Saxicola rubetra F Fairly common summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in moderate numbers
Stonechat Saxicola rubicola F Fairly common resident, summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in moderate numbers
Wheatear Oenanthe oenanthe
 ‒ ‒ oenanthe A Abundant summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very large numbers
 ‒ ‒ leucorhoa S Scarce passage migrant
Isabelline Wheatear Oenanthe isabelline V Vagrant
Desert Wheatear Oenanthe deserti V Vagrant
Dipper Cinclus cinclus C Common resident. Breeds in moderate numbers
Tree Sparrow Passer montanus C Common resident and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Spanish Sparrow Passer hispaniolensis V Vagrant
House Sparrow Passer domesticus A Abundant resident. Breeds in very large numbers
Dunnock Prunella modularis A Abundant resident. Breeds in very large numbers
Yellow Wagtail Motacilla flava
 ‒ ‒ flavissima U Uncommon summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very small numbers
 ‒ ‒ flava R Rare visitor
Citrine Wagtail Motacilla citreola V Vagrant
Grey Wagtail Motacilla cinerea C Common resident, summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in large numbers
Pied Wagtail Motacilla alba
 ‒ ‒ yarrellii A Abundant resident, summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very large numbers
 ‒ ‒ alba F Fairly common passage migrant
Richard’s Pipit Anthus richardi V Vagrant
Tawny Pipit Anthus campestris V Vagrant
Meadow Pipit Anthus pratensis A Abundant resident, summer visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very large numbers
Tree Pipit Anthus trivialis C Common summer visitor. Breeds in large numbers
Water Pipit Anthus spinoletta R Rare winter visitor and passage migrant
Rock Pipit Anthus petrosus U Uncommon resident and fairly common winter visitor. Breeds in small numbers
 ‒ ‒ petrosus
 ‒ ‒ littoralis
Chaffinch Fringilla coelebs A Abundant resident, winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very large numbers
 ‒ ‒ gengleri
 ‒ ‒ coelebs
Brambling Fringilla montfringilla C Common winter visitor and passage migrant
Hawfinch Coccothraustes coccothraustes U Uncommon resident and winter visitor. Breeds in small numbers
Bullfinch Pyrrhula pyrrhula C Common resident and uncommon winter visitor. Breeds in moderate numbers
Common Rosefinch Carpodacus erythrina V Vagrant
Greenfinch Chloris chloris A Abundant resident, summer visitor, passage migrant and winter visitor. Breeds in very large numbers
Twite Linaria flavirostris U Uncommon resident, fairly common winter visitor and passage migrant. Breeds in very small numbers
Linnet Linaria cannabina A Abundant resident, summer visitor, passage migrant and winter visitor. Breeds in very large numbers
Common Redpoll Acanthis flammea V Vagrant
Lesser Redpoll Acanthis cabaret C Abundant resident, summer visitor, passage migrant and winter visitor. Breeds in large numbers
Arctic Redpoll Acanthis hornemanni V Vagrant
Parrot Crossbill Loxia pytyopsittacus V Vagrant
Crossbill Loxia curvirostra U Uncommon resident, irruptive passage migrant and winter visitor. Breeds in small numbers
Two-barred Crossbill Loxia leucoptera V Vagrant
Goldfinch Carduelis carduelis A Abundant resident and summer visitor. Breeds in very large numbers
Serin Serinus serinus V Vagrant
Siskin Spinus spinus C Common resident, summer visitor, passage migrant and winter visitor. Breeds in large numbers
Lapland Bunting Calcarius lapponicus R Rare winter visitor and passage migrant
Snow Bunting Plectrophenax nivalis F Fairly common winter visitor and passage migrant
 ‒ ‒ nivalis
 ‒ ‒ insulae
Corn Bunting Miliaria calandra V Vagrant. Former widespread breeder
Yellowhammer Emberiza citronella A Abundant resident. Breeds in large numbers
Ortolan Bunting Emberiza hortulana V Vagrant
Cirl Bunting Emberiza cirlus V Vagrant
Little Bunting Emberiza pusilla V Vagrant
Rustic Bunting Emberiza rustica V Vagrant
Reed Bunting Emberiza schoeniclus C Common resident. Breeds in moderate numbers
White-throated Sparrow Zonotrichia albicollis V Vagrant

Record Recording Categories 2021

The Record Recording Categories are derived from the numbers of records of each species in the decade 2011 – 2020 using the usual 10-year rolling assessment. It is important to note that these definitions do not represent an accurate measure of the abundance of species. It is our ambition to work towards determining meaningful assessments of the abundance of both species and breeding numbers for the county.

These are most meaningful for the Vagrant, Rare and Scarce categories and become progressively less meaningful through the Uncommon, Fairly Common, Common to Abundant categories. The data from which these numbers of records are calculated come largely from casual observations which do not use a standard method. These casual observations do frequently have a degree of focus however, for example records of the scarcer waders are usually the result of observers looking for them at likely locations at the appropriate time of year.

The primary purpose of creating these definitions is to determine which species currently occur with a sufficient degree of rarity that they require a description to be submitted and accepted before they become accepted records. It is the species that are Vagrant and Rare that require a description.

These definitions are calculated in this way using the number of records during the past decade –

  • V   Vagrant - Fewer than 2
  • R   Rare - 3 – 10, or at least 5 years without a record
  • S   Scarce - Averaging up to 5 per year
  • U   Uncommon - Averaging 6 – 50 per year
  • F   Fairly common - Averaging 50 – 500 per year
  • C   Common - Averaging 500 – 5, 000 per year
  • A   Abundant - Averaging over 5, 000 per year

In addition to the Vagrant and Rare species Regional Recorders may ask for descriptions of species other than those designated as Vagrant or Rare particularly where there is a single observer and no suitable photograph is available.

Breeding Categories

These are derived from the numbers of pairs given in The Breeding Birds of Cumbria 1997-2001, these numbers are then modified by applying BTO trends since that time –

  • Former breeder : not in the last 10 years
  • Occasional breeder : at least once in the last 10 years
  • Breeds in very small numbers : 1-25 pairs per annum
  • Breeds in small numbers : 25-250 pairs per annum
  • Breeds in moderate numbers : 250-2500 pairs per annum
  • Breeds in large numbers : 2500 – 25000 pairs per annum
  • Breeds in very large numbers : over 25000 pairs per annum